The Homer Multitext · Casey Dué & Mary Ebbott, Editors · Christopher Blackwell & Neel Smith, Project Architects · Douglas Frame, Leonard Muellner, & Gregory Nagy, Associate Editors · A Publication of the Center for Hellenic Studies of Harvard University, G. Nagy, Director, with support from the University of Houston’s High Performance Computing Group. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 0916148 & No. 0916421. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recomendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Metrical Summaries · Venetus A & Escorialensis 4Iliad

N. Katie Phillips, Christopher W. Blackwell, Casey Dué, Mary Ebbott, Neel Smith, edd.

This is a side-by-side comparison of three versions on an interesting “text” that appears on several Byzantine manuscripts of the Homeric Iliad. As each of the twenty-four poetic books begins, some of these manuscripts will include a one-line summary of the contents of that book. These summaries are themselves in Greek, and in the same poetic meter, dactylic hexameter, as the epic poem. This document compares the 24 one-line metrical summaries in the 10th century manuscript Marcianus Graecus Z.454 (= 822), the “Venetus A”, with those of the 11th century manuscripts Escorialensis ω.I.12 (509 = Allen E4) and Escorialensis υ.I.1 (291 = Allen E3).
Venetus A: 1 Alpha Text: + λφα λιτς Χρύσου. λοιμν στρατο· χθος νάκτων + Translation: Alpha contains prayers of Chrysēs; plague among the army; enmity of the leaders.
Escorialensis 4: 1 Alpha Text: λφα λιτς Χρύσου· λοιμν στρατο· χθος νάκτων. Translation: Alpha contains prayers of Chrysēs; plague among the army; enmity of the leaders.
Escorialensis 3: 1 Alpha Text: λφα λϊτὰς Χρσο λοιμν στραο.χθος νκτων: Translation: Alpha contains prayers of Chrysēs; plague among the army; enmity of the leaders.
Venetus A: 2 Beta Text: + βτα δ νειρον χει· γορήν· κα νας ριθμε· Translation: And Beta has a dream, an assembly, and enumerates the ships.
Escorialensis 4: 2 Beta Text: βτα δ νειρον χει· γορήν· κα νας ριθμε· Translation: And Beta has a dream, an assembly, and enumerates the ships.
Escorialensis 3: 2 Beta Text: Βῆτα δ’ ὄμειρον ἔκει· ἀγορ· κα νας ριθμε· Translation: And Beta has a dream, an assembly, and enumerates the ships.
Venetus A: 3 Gamma Text: γάμμα δ’ ἄρ.φ λένης. οοις μόθος στν κοίταις· Translation: And then Gamma is from the point of view of Helen; the pitch of battle is only for husbands.
Escorialensis 4: 3 Gamma Text: γάμμα δ’ ἄρμφ λένηι· οοις μόθος στν κοίταις· Translation: And then Gamma is around Helen; the pitch of battle is only for husbands.
Escorialensis 3: 3 Gamma Text: Γμμα δ’μφλνηι· οοις μθος στν κοταις· Translation: And then Gamma is from the point of view of Helen; the pitch of battle is only for husbands.
Venetus A: 4 Delta Text: δέλτα θεῶν ἀγορην· ρκων χύσιν· ρεος ρχήν· Translation: Delta contains an assembly of the gods, many oaths, the onslaught of Ares.
Escorialensis 4: 4 Delta Text: δέλτα θεῶν ἀγορ· ρκων χύσις· ρεος ρχή. Translation: Delta is an assembly of the gods, many oaths, the onslaught of Ares.
Escorialensis 3: 4 Delta Text: Δελτα θεν ορην· ρκων χσιν· ρεος ρχν· Translation: Delta contains an assembly of the gods, many oaths, the onslaught of Ares.
Venetus A: 5 Epsilon Text: εἶ. βάλλει Κυθέρειαν. Ἄρηά τε. Τυδέος ὑιός: Translation: “E”: The son of Tydeus strikes Aphrodite and Ares.
Escorialensis 4: 5 Epsilon Text: εἶ· βάλλει Κυθέρειαν· Ἄρηά τε· Τυδέος ὑιός. Translation: “E”: The son of Tydeus strikes Aphrodite and Ares.
Escorialensis 3: 5 Epsilon Text: εἶ βλλει Κυθρειαν· ρην τε· Τυδος ις. Translation: "E": The son of Tydeus strikes Aphrodite and Ares
Venetus A: 6 Zeta Text: ζῆτα· δ ρ. νδρομάχης τ κα κτορός στ αριστύς· Translation: And then Zeta is the fond discourse of both Andromache and Hektor.Note: While there seems to be space in “ὁ αριστύς”, we are satisfied that this is meant to be one word; the scribe is meticulous about providing a breathing at the beginning of a word, and the alpha clearly has none. But why does ὁαριστύς have a rough breathing? Did the scribe, unfamiliar with this exclusively epic word, guess wrong at the (no longer pronounced in the 10th century) breathing?
Escorialensis 4: 6 Zeta Text: ζῆτα· δ ρ νδρομάχης κα κτορός στι αριστύς. Translation: And then Zeta is the fond discourse of Andromache and Hektor.
Escorialensis 3: 6 Zeta Text: ζῆτα· δ’ ἄρ’ Ἀνδρομάχης καὶ Ἕκτορος ἐστ ὀαριστύς. Translation: And then Zeta is the fond discourse of Andromache and Hektor.
Venetus A: 7 Eta Text: ἦτα δ· Αἴας πολέμιζε μόν μόνος κτορι δί· Translation: And Eta: Aias fights one-on-one with radiant Hektor.Note: Between E4 and the Venetus A, the words translated here “one-on-one” are reverse: μόνος μόνωι (in E4) versus μόνωι μόνος (in the Venetus A). The two versions are equally correct, grammatically and metrically.
Escorialensis 4: 7 Eta Text: ἦτα· δ Αἴας πολέμιζε μόνος μόνωι κτορι δίωι. Translation: And Eta: Aias fights one-on-one with radiant Hektor.Note: Between E4 and the Venetus A, the words translated here “one-on-one” are reverse: μόνος μόνωι (in E4) versus μόνωι μόνος (in the Venetus A). The two versions are equally correct, grammatically and metrically.
Escorialensis 3: 7 Eta Text: ἦτα δ Αας πολμιζε μνωι μνος κτορι δωι. Translation: And Eta: Aias fights one-on-one with radiant Hektor.
Venetus A: 8 Theta Text: θῆτα· θεῶν ἀγορή· Τρώων κράτος· κτορος εχος· Translation: Theta is an assembly of the gods, the power of the Trojans, the boast of Hektor.
Escorialensis 4: 8 Theta Text: θῆτα· θεῶν ἀγορήν· Τρώων κράτος· κτορος ρχ. Translation: Theta contains an assembly of the gods. The might of the Trojans. The onslaught of Hektor.
Escorialensis 3: 8 Theta Text: θῆτα θεν γορή· Τρώων κράτος· κτορος εχος· Translation: Theta is an assembly of the gods, the power of the Trojans, the boast of Hektor.
Venetus A: 9 Iota Text: ἐξεσίη δ’ Ἀχιλῆος ἀπειθέος ἐστὶν ἰῶτα: Translation: And an embassy to implacable Achilleus, is Iota.
Escorialensis 4: 9 Iota Text: ἐξεσίη δ’ Ἀχιλῆος ἀπειθέος ἐστὶν ἰῶτα. Translation: And a mission to implacable Achilleus, is Iota.
Escorialensis 3: 9 Iota Text: ξαισίη δ χιλος πειθέος στν τα: Translation: And an embassy to implacable Achilleus, is Iota.
Venetus A: 10 Kappa Text: κάππα δ ρ μφοτέρων σκοπιαζμεν λυθον νδρες: Translation: And Kappa: men from both sides went forth to spy.
Escorialensis 4: 10 Kappa Text: κάππα· δ ρ μφοτέρων σκοπιάζεμεν λυθον νδρες. Translation: And Kappa: men from both sides went forth to spy.
Escorialensis 3: 10 Kappa Text: κάππα δ ρ μφοτέρων σκοπιαζέμεν λυθον νδρες: Translation: And Kappa: men from both sides went forth to spy.
Venetus A: 11 Lambda Text: λάμβδα δ. ριστας Δαναν βάλον κτορος νδρες: Translation: And Lambda. Men of Hektor strike the best of the Danaans.
Escorialensis 4: 11 Lambda Text: λάβδα δ ριστας Δαναν βάλον κτορος νδρες. Translation: And Lambda. Men of Hektor strike the best of the Danaans.
Escorialensis 3: 11 Lambda Text: λάβδα δ’ ἀριστῆας Δαναῶν βάλον Ἕκτορος ἄνδρες. Translation: And Lambda. Men of Hektor strike the best of the Danaans.
Venetus A: 12 Mu Text: μῦ Τρώων παλάμῃσι κατήριπε τεῖχος Ἀχαιῶν· Translation: Mu. By the hands of the Trojans, the Achaians’ wall is hurled down.
Escorialensis 4: 12 Mu Text: μῦ Τρώων παλάμῃσι κατήριπε τεῖχος Ἀχαιῶν· Translation: Mu. By the hands of the Trojans, the Achaians’ wall is hurled down.
Escorialensis 3: 12 Mu Text: μῦ Τρώων παλάμησϊ κατήρϊπε τεῖχος Ἀχαιῶν· Translation: Mu. By the hands of the Trojans, the Achaians’ wall is hurled down.
Venetus A: 13 Nu Text: νῦ· δ. Ποσειδάων Δαναος κράτος πασε λάθρ. Translation: And Nu. Poseidon gives power to the Danaans in secret.
Escorialensis 4: 13 Nu Text: νῦ δ Ποσειδάων Δαναος κράτος πασε λάθρ: Translation: And Nu. Poseidon gives power to the Danaans in secret.
Escorialensis 3: 13 Nu Text: νῦ δὲ Ποσειδάων Δαναοῖσι κράτος ώπασε λάθρ: Translation: And Nu. Poseidon gives power to the Danaans in secret.
Venetus A: 14 Xi Text: ξῖ. Κρονίδην ὕπνῳ. λεχέεσσί τε. παφεν ρη· Translation: Xi. Hera beguiles the Son of Kronos by sleep and the pleasures of the couch.
Escorialensis 4: 14 Xi Text: ξῖ· Κρονίδην ὕπνῳ λεχέεσσί τε παφεν ρη: Translation: Xi. Hera beguiles the Son of Kronos by sleep and the pleasures of the couch.
Escorialensis 3: 14 Xi Text: ξῖ Κρονίδην λεχέεσσι κα ο πνωι παφεν ρη: Translation: Xi. The son of Cronos [sleeps] on a couch and Hera beguiles him with a scent
Venetus A: 15 Omicron Text: οὐ Κρονίδης κεχόλωτο Ποσειδάονι κα ρ· Translation: “O”. The Son of Kronos is angered at Poseidon and Hera.
Escorialensis 4: 15 Omicron Text: οὐ. Κρονίδης κεχόλωτο Ποσειδάονι κα ρ: Translation: “O”. The Son of Kronos is angered at Poseidon and Hera.
Escorialensis 3: 15 Omicron Text: οὐ Κρονίδης κεχόλωτο Ποσειδάονηι καὶ Ἥρῃ· Translation: “O”. The Son of Kronos is angered at Poseidon and Hera.
Venetus A: 16 Pi Text: πῖ· Πάτροκλον πεφνεν ἀρήϊον κτορος αχμή· Translation: Pi. Hektor’s spear kills warlike Patroklos.
Escorialensis 4: 16 Pi Text: πῖ· Πατρκλον πεφνεν ἀρήϊον· κτορος αχμή· Translation: Pi. Hektor’s spear kills warlike Patroklos.
Escorialensis 3: 16 Pi Text: πῖ Πάτροκλον πεφνεν ρήϊον. κτορος αχμή· Translation: Pi. Hektor’s spear kills warlike Patroklos.
Venetus A: 17 Rho Text: ῥῶ. Δαναο Τρές τε νέκυν πέρι χείρας ἔμιστον: Translation: Rho. The Danaans and Trojans clash over the corpse.
Escorialensis 4: 16 Rho Text: ῥῶ Δαναο Τρές τε· νέκυν περ χείρας ἔμιστον: Translation: Rho. The Danaans and Trojans clash over the corpse.
Escorialensis 3: 17 Rho Text: ῥῶ· Δαναο Τρες τε νέκυν πέρι χερας ἔμιστον: Translation: Rho. The Danaans and Trojans clash over the corpse.
Venetus A: 18 Sigma Text: σίγμα· Θέτις χιλϊ παρ φαίστου φέρεν. πλα: Translation: Sigma. Thetis brings arms from Hephaestus for Achilleus.
Escorialensis 4: 18 Sigma Text: σίγμα Θέτις χιλϊ παρ φαίστου φέρεν πλα: Translation: Sigma. Thetis brings arms from Hephaestus for Achilleus.
Escorialensis 3: 18 Sigma Text: σγμα δ τεχεα τεοξε καμν φαιστο χιλλε: Translation: Sigma. Hephaestus, toiling, armed Achilles with weapons.
Venetus A: 19 Tau Text: ταῦ δ’. πέληγε χόλοιο. κα κθορε. δις χιλλεύς: Translation: And Tau. Radiant Achilleus sets aside anger and springs forth.
Escorialensis 4: 19 Tau Text: ταῦ δ’ πέληγε χόλοιο κα κθορε δις χιλλεύς: Translation: And Tau. Radiant Achilleus sets aside anger and springs forth.
Escorialensis 3: 19 Tau Text: ταῦ φιλην ξυνθεντο· ππαυτο δ μνιδος ρχ: Translation: Tau. They agree on a frienship. And the reign of rage ceased.
Venetus A: 20 Upsilon Text: ῦ. μακάρων ρις ρτο· φέρει δ π κάρτος χαιος· Translation: “U”. Strife arises among the gods and brings strength to the Achaeans.
Escorialensis 4: 20 Upsilon Text: ῦ μακάρων ρις ρτο φέρει δ π κάρτος χαιος: Translation: “U”. Strife arises among the gods and brings strength to the Achaeans.
Escorialensis 3: 20 Upsilon Text: ῦ μακάρων νοπ κα φλλοπις ορανινων: Translation: “U” The battle cry of the blessed ones and the din of battle of the heavenly beings.Note: φύλλοπις = φύλοπις
Venetus A: 21 Phi Text: φῖ. κρατερ καταχεύματ δάμνατο Τρώας χιλλεύς· Translation: Phi. By an even greater downpouring, Achilleus overcomes the Trojans.
Escorialensis 4: 21 Phi Text: φῖ κρατερ καταχεύματ δάμματο Τρώας χιλλεύς· Translation: Phi. By an even greater downpouring, Achilleus overcomes the Trojans.
Escorialensis 3: 21 Phi Text: φῖ μθος ακδαο. παρ ϊνας ποταμοo: Translation: Phi.The battle of Aeacus’ son, across the banks of a river.
Venetus A: 22 Chi Text: χῖ δ’ ἄρα. τρς περι τεχος γων. κτάνεν κτορ χιλλεύς: Translation: Chi. And leading him around the walls three times, Achilleus kills Hektor.
Escorialensis 4: 22 Xi Text: χῖ δ’ ἄρα τρς περι τεχος γων, κτάνεν κτορ χιλλεύς: Translation: Chi. And leading him around the walls three times, Achilleus kills Hektor.
Escorialensis 3: 22 Chi Text: χῖ Θτιδος Γνος κς. πλεσεν κτορα δον: Translation: Chi.The swift son of Thetis kills god-like Hector.
Venetus A: 23 Psi Text: ψῖ. Δαναοσιν γνα διδος. τέλεσσεν χιλλεύς: Translation: Psi. Achilleus completes giving games for the Danaans.
Escorialensis 4: 23 Psi Text: ψῖ Δαναοσιν γνα διδος τέλεσσεν χιλλεύς: Translation: Psi. Achilleus completes giving games for the Danaans.
Escorialensis 3: 23 Psi Text: ψῖ πατροκλον κλαε. κα ξετλεσε εν γνας: Translation: Psi. He was lamenting Patroclus. And he ended [the lamenting] with contests.
Venetus A: 24 Omega Text: ὦ Πριάμῳ νέκυν υἷα. λαβν γέρα δκεν χιλλεύς Translation: “Ō”. Achilleus, having taken a ransom, gives Priam the corpse of his son.
Escorialensis 4: 24 Omega Text: ὦ Πριάμῳ νέκυν υἷα λαβν γέρα δκεν χιλλεύς Translation: “Ō”. Achilleus, having taken a ransom, gives Priam the corpse of his son.
Escorialensis 3: 24 Omega Text: ὦ νκυν κτορα πατρ πρεν χιλλες ν δωρα: Translation: “Ō” Achilles offers the corpse of Hector to his father as a gift.
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