#Venetus A Paleographic Guide#

##Letter Forms##

LetterExample
alpha
beta
gamma
delta
epsilon
epsilon2
epsilon3
zeta
eta
theta
iota
kappa
lambda
mu
nu
xi
omicron
pi
rho
sigma
tau
upsilon
phi
chi
psi
omega

##Ligatures##

When writing the text, many letters form ligatures in order to save space. Here are some common ones of the Venetus A.

LetterExample
alpha-chi
epsilon-epsilon
epsilon-iota
epsilon-nu
epsilon-omicron
epsilon-pi
epsilon-sigma
epsilon-sigma
epsilon-sigma
epsilon-tau-omicron
epsilon-upsilon
epsilon-chi
vu-tau-epsilon-sigma
omicron-sigma
pi-epsilon
pi-omicron
pi-tau
rho-iota
sigma-pi
sigma-sigma
sigma-tau-omicron
sigma-phi
tau-epsilon
tau-omicron
tau-omega

##Abreviations##

###Morphological Endings###

LetterExample   
alpha    
alpha    
alpha-iota    
alpha-nu    
alpha-sigma    
epsilon-sigma    
eta-nu  eta-sigma
iota-nu    
kappa-omicron-sigma    
-μεν + ending    
nu    
omicron-iota-sigma    
omicron-nu    
omicron-sigma    
omicron-sigma    
omicron-upsilon-sigma    
tau-alpha    
omega    
omega-nu    
omega-sigma    

###Symbols###

Many words are abbreviated with symbols from which we can distinguish few or no letters.

WordExample 
γάρ  
δέ  
ἔστι  
καί  
 ὅτι

###Common Words###

Many words that were common in Byzantine liturgical texts are abbreviated. Usually you have the beginning and end of the word, with the middle letters omitted. Unlike the morphological endings, the abbreviation mark does not always indicate the same string of letters from word to word, so they are tagged as abbreviation in the mark up. Here are some of the common words you will find abbreviated in the Venetus A.

WordExample
ἄνθρωπος
υἱός
γράφει
εἶναι
ἠέλιος
θεός
λέγει
λόγος
μήτηρ
πατήρ
πόλις
φησι
χρόνος

###Common Prepositions###

WordExample
ἀντί
διά τό
παρά
παρά τό
περί
περί
πρός
ὑπό

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